The hottest oil drilling new technology realizes l

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At the beginning of the founding of new China, China did not have the manufacturing capacity of oil drilling equipment and tools. The main drilling equipment was the drilling rigs from the Soviet Union and Romania. Until the 1970s, China began to produce domestic drilling rigs. In 2006, China successfully developed a 9000 meter drill, and in 2007 successfully developed a 12000 meter drill, which was exported to many countries

drilling is an important part of the petroleum industry. It is an engineering technology for building underground oil and gas reservoirs to the ground. It is known as the linmen of oil exploration and development. In recent years, a number of large-scale equipment and high-end instruments have been put into industrial application, the technology integration and matching and field tests have significantly increased speed and efficiency, a number of new drilling technology and process tests have made significant progress, the technical reserve has been enhanced, and the drilling technology has achieved leapfrog development

I. deep well drilling equipment and 10000 meter drilling rig

in 2007, China successfully developed a 12000 meter drilling rig, which broke through the problems of integral lifting of large drilling rig derrick, welding of low temperature resistant materials, high load lifting and processing of transmission system. The 9000 meter drill has been verified by Moshen 1 well and its performance is stable; The 12000 meter drill has been verified by the service of Sichuan Longgang Chuanke 1 well (7566.50 meters), with good performance, reaching the leading level of similar foreign products, and has obtained 9 patents

II. Top drive drilling technology

the traditional rotary table device for rotary drilling is located on the drill floor and drives the downhole drill string to rotate through Kelly. The top drive drilling device, referred to as top drive for short, is connected with the top of the drill string and directly drives the drill string for rotary drilling, circulating drilling fluid, and makeup and unloading. It has multiple drilling functions

the top drive drilling device replaces the traditional rotary table, Kelly and square bushing drilling mode on the drilling platform. The key technology is to use the space between the crown block and the rotary table to connect the driving main body with the lifting system, so as to make full use of the space, and take the root as the unit to replace the single one for drilling operation, which improves the drilling speed and improves the borehole quality. The outstanding advantage of top drive drilling is that when the drilling string is blocked during tripping, it can quickly connect with the drilling tool with the setback as the unit, rotate the drilling tool and circulate the drilling fluid in time, so as to eliminate the risk of downhole blockage

at present, top drive has become one of the necessary equipment in exploration wells, deep wells, complex wells and overseas drilling operations. It is one of the major key technologies in the world's drilling engineering industry at the beginning of the 21st century, representing the latest level in major installations of today's oil drilling rigs

China has become the fifth country in the world with top drive design and manufacturing capacity after the United States, Norway, Canada and France

III. directional well and cluster well

both directional well and cluster well can be called inclined well, which is different from the shaft shape of ordinary vertical well (vertical ground). The obvious feature is that there is a high inclination in the predetermined direction from the wellhead to the bottom of the well, which can reach more than 100 ° at most (horizontal well). Of course, the general vertical well is not as vertical as people think. In fact, there are slopes of different sizes and directions, but this slope is not very large, which is required to be controlled, which is also related to the well depth

in the process of oil exploration and development, due to the limitations of various objective conditions or economic considerations, drilling straight wells can not achieve the expected purpose, while drilling deviated wells can develop strengths and circumvent weaknesses. Therefore, people have successfully practiced the method of drilling deviated wells on the basis of drilling straight wells. Along the stock code 002886), the first public offering of A-shares was solemnly held at the Shenzhen Stock Exchange, drilling in the selected direction to reach the predetermined target horizon, becoming a directional well; Multiple wells with different azimuth and inclination are drilled on a well pad or drilling platform to become cluster wells. The deviation angle of conventional directional wells is generally 15 ° - 45 °, and that of highly deviated directional wells can reach more than 45 °

among them, the latter three kinds of equipment are supporting equipment to cooperate with the impact testing machine for impact experiments. Fourth, continuous pipe drilling

continuous pipe drilling is to wind the drill pipe developed from special materials on the huge cable car like steel wire, so as to realize the continuous drilling operation without replacing the drill pipe

the main equipment of coiled tubing drilling is a coiled tubing drill. There is a power system and coiled tubing wound on the drum above the drill. The end of the coiled tubing is connected with a motor and a drill bit. The continuous pipe adopts high-strength and high toughness pipes. The drilling fluid drives the downhole motor through the continuous pipe and drives the drill bit under the motor to rotate for drilling. All the equipment is installed on a towing trailer, which can be towed by a standard trailer when the drilling rig is moved

compared with conventional drilling, coiled tubing drilling has the greatest advantages: it eliminates the derrick that has been used for many years, has less surface equipment for drilling, covers a small area, and is convenient, fast and flexible for equipment relocation and installation. It is especially suitable for surface or offshore platform operations with limited conditions, and can reduce the land occupation and relocation costs of the well pad; In the process of drilling, there is no need to connect the drill pipe, which can realize the continuous circulation of drilling fluid, improve the speed and safety of drilling tripping, and greatly shorten the drilling cycle; Because less drilling fluid is used, the pollution to the environment can be reduced; Coiled tubing is an integral drill pipe without joints, which is conducive to underbalanced drilling

v. geosteering drilling technology

geosteering drilling can measure formation parameters and wellbore trajectory in real time while drilling, and can draw various logging curves. It is a cutting-edge technology of international drilling. The principle is that after the permeability or resistivity of the oil and gas reservoir is measured by the logging tool while drilling, the information is sent to the ground, and the well trajectory is adjusted according to the actual formation trend of oil and gas, so as to maximize the drilling of the oil and gas reservoir. This operating principle is also known as geological guidance. This kind of drilling has a significant effect on increasing the lifting area of wellbore and oil and gas reservoir, improving the success rate of drilling and increasing the production of a single well

Gas drilling technology originated in the United States in 1953, using gas and gas-liquid mixed fluid as the circulating medium to replace drilling fluid. It is characterized by greatly reducing the damage to the production layer, improving the exploration and development benefits, eliminating the impact of lost circulation on drilling operations, improving the drilling speed, reducing the total cost of drilling operations, and making the working environment and conditions more environmentally friendly and clean. However, gas drilling is limited to the stable interval of the wellbore. Unstable formations are easy to get stuck, and the risk of well control is greater

gas drilling technology started relatively late in China. Sichuan Province began to make sporadic attempts from 1950s to 1970s, and developed rapidly after 2000. After 2005, gas drilling in Sichuan basin developed rapidly, and gas drilling equipment basically realized localization. Gas drilling technology has realized large-scale application in China

VII. Underbalanced drilling technology

underbalanced drilling refers to a set of high-quality and safe drilling technology, in which the pressure of drilling fluid is slightly less than the pressure of drilling formation during the drilling process, so as to avoid and greatly reduce the drilling fluid entering the formation, so that the oil and gas reservoir will not be damaged or crushed, and blowout will not occur. The underbalanced drilling series is also divided into: gas drilling, atomized drilling, foam drilling fluid drilling, aerated drilling fluid drilling, clear water or brine drilling fluid drilling, water in oil or oil in water drilling fluid drilling, etc. Underbalanced drilling has been popularized and applied in Sinopec and CNOOC. At present, it has formed the ability to drill 300 wells a year

VIII. Horizontal well drilling technology

horizontal well drilling technology is a directional drilling technology that uses special downhole power drilling tools and measuring instruments while drilling to drill a well with a deviation angle of more than 86 ° and maintain this angle to drill a certain length of well section. In oilfield development, horizontal wells can increase the exposed oil production area and increase the oil and gas production of a single well several times

horizontal well drilling technology includes measurement while drilling technology, well trajectory control technology, wellbore stability technology, drilling and completion fluid technology, etc. The smaller the radius of curvature from vertical well section to horizontal well section, the greater the difficulty of construction

horizontal wells can be divided into long radius horizontal wells, medium radius horizontal wells, short radius horizontal wells and ultra short radius horizontal wells according to the radius of curvature; According to the type of well, it can be divided into conventional horizontal well, casing sidetracking horizontal well and branch horizontal well; According to the purpose, it can turn some mechanical quality into electricity. 3 is the output device, which can be divided into production horizontal well, injection horizontal well and horizontal horizontal well

horizontal well drilling technology originated in the 1930s and developed in the 1980s. There are more than 20000 horizontal wells in the world every year. In China, some oilfields represented by Shengli Oilfield, Liaohe Oilfield and Changqing Oilfield have also widely used horizontal well drilling technology and achieved good results

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